2013 International Elephant & Rhino Conservation & Research Symposium Proceedings

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Table of Contents:



Schedule of Presentations and Events 9
Abstracts 17
Session I Human-wildlife Co-existence
Securing human-elephant coexistence, Simon Hedges, IUCN/SSC Asian Elephant Specialist Group 65
An update on the Asian Elephant Conservation Fund supported projects Mini Nagendran, Asian Elephant Conservation Fund – U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 134
The Elephants and Bees Project: Using bees as a natural deterrent for crop-raiding elephants Lucy King, Save the Elephants 180
Session II Illegal Trade
Ivory and rhino horn: Legal sale versus illegal poaching W. R. Allen, The Paul Mellon Laboratory 226
Conserving African elephants through walking and talking over 2500 km in Kenya Jim Nyamu, Elephant Neighbors Center 268
Section III In situ Population Dynamics and Conservation
Focus on black rhino: Diceros bicornis bicornis population dynamics and a formula for successful conservation of the species 2002-2012 –Susan P. Downie, David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation 293
Reproductive parameters in wild Asian elephants in Southern Sri Lanka estimated through individual-based longitudinal monitoring –Shermin de Silva, Colorado State University/Trunks & Leaves, Inc. 320
Determining potential environmental and social factors affecting the success of the black rhinoceros in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa –Rachel Santymire, Davee Center for Epidemiology and Endocrinology Lincoln Park Zoo 348
White rhinoceros reproduction: Insights from the wild and semi-wild Ron Swaisgood, San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research 386
Session IV Reproduction I
Attempt to control estrus and ovulation in white rhinoceros using a synthetic progestagen and slow-release GnRH analogue – Annemieke van der Goot, University of Western Australia 423
Session V Veterinary Care
Manual restraint and chemical immobilization with xylazine/ketamine of wild and captive Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) under field conditions – Christopher Stremme, Veterinary Society for Sumatran Wildlife Conservation 437
Urinary hormone concentrations and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of haloperidol in a female Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) – Anri Benco, Cincinnati Zoo’s Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife
and Ohio State University
Current studies on molecular mechanisms of iron homeostasis in rhinoceroses Rose Linzmeier, UCLA School of Medicine 487
Issues of elephant health care management in Myanma Timber Enterprise (MTE), Myanmar Zaw Min Oo, Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry, Myanma Timber Enterprise 506
Update from the Stakeholders Task Force for the Management and Research Priorities of Tuberculosis for Elephants in Human Care – Kay Backues, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Representative to the Elephant Care Task Force and Tulsa Zoo 533
Testing for tuberculosis in elephants: what is the evidence? David Miller, Stakeholders Task Force for the Management and Research Priorities of Tuberculosis for Elephants in Human Care Point prevalence and incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in captive elephants 568 in the United States of America – Ramiro Isaza, University of Florida at Gainesville 542
Session VI Veterinary Care – Viruses
First evidence of EEHV infection in Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Indonesia – Christopher Stremme, Veterinary Society for Sumatran Wildlife Conservation 593
Seven species of elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) form a novel mammalian subfamily, the Deltaherpesvirinae – Gary Hayward, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine 612
Elephant herpesviruses EEHV2, EEHV3A, EEHV3B (a new subspecies), EEHV6, EEHV7A, EEHV7B (a new Subspecies) and EGHV1A, EGHV1B (a new species), EGHV2, EGHV4 found in tissue biopsies and saliva from African elephants in Kenya and America
Virginian Pearson, Princeton University
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV): where we are, where we are going – Lauren Howard, Houston Zoo 678
The lonely rhino: analyzing anthropomorphism toward solitary animals – Selenia Murillo, Chicago Zoological Society – Brookfield Zoo 708
Session VII Ex situ Benefits and Support of In situ Conservation
The bigger picture – How captive elephant facilities benefit wild elephant populations – Sean Hensman, Elephants for Africa Forever 743
Contributions to science and conservation by elephant managers and captive elephants – Heidi Riddle, Riddle’s Elephant and Wildlife Sanctuary and Elephant Managers Association 780
Contributions of the Ringling Bros. Center for Elephant Conservation to wildlife management in Sri Lanka – Charles Santiapillai, Center for the Study of Asian Elephant at Rajarata University of Sri Lanka at Mihintale 818
Session VIII In situ Conservation
Control of invasive arenga palm (Arenga obtusifolia) in habitat suitable for Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Ujung Kulon National Park, Indonesia Sectionov Inov, International Rhino Foundation – Indonesia 823
The Role of standing sedation in mitigating human-elephant conflict in Sri Lanka – S. Wijeyamohan, Ringling Bros. Center for the Study of Asian Elephants at Rajarata University 848
Trend analysis of temporal and spatial patterns of human-elephant conflict in Nepal – Dinesh Neupane, Arkansas State University 856
Session IX In situ Management of Wildlife and Habitat
The significance of pre-existing social bonds in translocated black rhinos Natasha Anderson, Lowveld Rhino Trust 890
Boma adaptation and development of a scoring system for recently captured white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in South Africa – Michele Miller, Rare Species Conservancy Foundation 930
Contact calls of the Northern and Southern white rhinoceros: Source of information on individual identity and species of the caller? – Ivana Cinkova, Palacky University 960
Human – Elephant Conflict in the North West Wildlife Zone of Sri Lanka – Pubudu Weerarathna, Species Conservation Center 962
Session X Reproduction II
Oral imipramine and intravenous xylazine for pharmacologically-induced ex copula ejaculation in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) – Ray Ball, Tampa’s Lowry Park Zoo 1008
Pretreatment of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)<,em> spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded 1030 cyclodextrins and glycerol addition at 4 degrees C improves cryosurvival – Wendy Kiso, The Ringling Bros. Center for Elephant Conservation 1030
Session XI Ex situ Reproduction and Management
Relationships among birth presentation, amniotic sac rupture and stillbirths in rhinoceros – Jane Kennedy, San Diego Zoo Global 1033
Thermoregulation in the African elephant and possible effects on fertility – Ray Ball, Tampa’s Lowry Park Zoo 1080
Reproduction and population performance in the European captive population of Eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) Katie L. Edwards, Chester Zoo 1112
Improving the welfare of captive Asian elephants in Kerala, India – T.P. Sethumadhaven, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University 1131
Relationship between management, adrenal activity and reproduction in a captive group of female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) Jess Trotter, Chester Zoo 1189
Social and reproductive behavior of critically endangered Northern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium cottoni) in a zoological garden – Ivana Cinkova, Palacky University 1203
Ex situ Management
Management of a breeding herd of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) on a predominately forage diet – Ray Ball, Tampa’s Lowry Park Zoo 1216
Asian Elephant Support: A year in review and the importance of collaboration – Linda Reifschneider, Asian Elephant Support 1261
Posters 1286
Symposium Participants 1296
Host Institution–International Conservation Center 1305
3rd Annual Management and Research Priorities of Tuberculosis for Elephants in Human Care Workshop Proceedings 1341