Negative encounters with people result in poor relations between local peoples and wildlife, loss of livelihoods, and injury or death to people and elephants. A continuation of the program IEF has supported for 2 years, this project tests and evaluates the effectiveness of different methods of human elephant conflict (HEC) mitigation and crop protection. This study investigates means to reduce HEC through deterrents by testing the effectiveness of a variety of methods both on their own and when used in combination with each other. This year beehive and bee pheromone fencing is being included for evaluation and comparison. Behavioral and ecological correlates will also be studied to explore connections to crop raiding as will climate-smart agriculture practices for sustainable farming.